Ultimate Guide to Mushrooms

A mushroom is considered as the fruiting body or plant that emerges out of fungi. However, despite their good appearance, not every mushroom can be eaten up. Some of them are poisonous which should be avoided at all costs. In fact, multiple types of mushrooms can be used for various purposes besides eating. Find out more about types of mushrooms in the guide below. 

Types of Mushrooms

Button Mushrooms

Button mushroom, also called white mushrooms, is scientifically called Agaricus Bisporus. It is a member of the division basidiomycete, of the kingdom Fungi. It is one of the most popular types of mushrooms in the world and is grown in 70 countries. 

 Button mushrooms are the immature, white versions of Agaricus Bisporus. 

The cultivation of this mushroom wasn’t prevalent at first. The common Agaricus was brown until the owner of the Keystone Mushroom Farm discovered a white mushroom growing in his field in 1925. From there, this mycelium was used for cultivation and grew in popularity steadfastly.

White button mushrooms require a warmer temperature of about 70 F/21C to grow. However, temperatures any higher than that can kill the spores. The mushroom requires a 50/50 mixture of manure and vermiculite. 

The amount of medium required depends on the mass of the button mushroom spawn used. 50g of spawn would require 5 kg of the medium. We recommend horse manure because it has the highest nitrogen content. The mushrooms should start appearing in 2-3 weeks, however, they can’t be harvested before 5-6 weeks. Button mushrooms can be harvested year-round. 

The spore print of the mushroom is brown.

Wild Mushrooms. 

Portobello Mushrooms

Portobello mushrooms are the matured versions of button mushrooms, the fungi Agaricus Bisporus. These mushrooms are brown and have a cap measuring 10–15 centimeters (4–6 inches). Other than the brown color of its cap, the dark brown gills under the mushroom are another distinction in its appearance. The spore print of the mushroom is brown. 

Portobello mushrooms are available from December to March and don’t have a very long storage life. If stored with extreme care in the fridge, at 34ºF to 38ºF, and placed in a paper bag, the mushrooms can last up to 6-7 days. 

Water should never be used for Portobello mushrooms. You can simply wipe them with a cloth, or use a brush to remove the dirt off. If you need to use water, wipe the mushrooms with a little water, and dry them immediately. Never wash them. 

Portobello Mushrooms. 

Oyster Mushrooms

Oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus, were first grown during WW1 in Germany. During the tough days of the war, they were meant to be a source of sustenance. However, today, oyster mushrooms are grown and sold commercially and are included in a variety of dishes. 

Originally, oyster mushrooms are wild mushrooms, although they are cultivated in straw and other mediums too. The cap of the mushroom is wide and flat and can be as long as 2–30 cm. The mushroom can be seen in brown, white, and gray, while the gills are cream or white. When spore printed, the mushrooms produce a white to lilac-gray spore print, which can be seen on dark backgrounds. 

The mushrooms can normally be seen growing on wood in the wild. The ideal temperature for their growth is 20-30 C. To grow the mushrooms, the straw, ideally 5-10cm, is first washed in water. The water is then drained, and the straw is kept in plastic bags. The bags are steamed before the mycelium is added, and holes are made in the sides. From here, the oyster mushrooms grow out of the bag. 

The mushrooms can be harvested in about 3-4 weeks, or about 3-4 days after the mushrooms first start to be seen. 

Oyster Mushrooms.

Enoki Mushrooms

Enoki mushrooms, also called velvet shank, are a very big part of Japanese cuisine. Flammulina velutipes, as the mushroom is scientifically called, is part of the family Physalacriaceae, in the Kingdom Fungi. Naturally, the mushroom grows on the stumps on the Chinese hackberry tree, ash tree, mulberry tree, and permission trees. 

Enoki mushrooms can be found from September- March and have different versions depending on the growing method. While enoki mushrooms have short, thick stumps, and a pink/ brown tint to them. Cultivated enoki mushrooms are white, and have thin, long stumps with small caps.  This is because enoki mushrooms are cultivated in environments with a lot of CO2. 

The caps are 1-5 cm wide, while the stem is 2-8 cm long, and 4-7 mm wide. Their spore print is white. 

At home, enoki mushrooms are grown in aged sawdust that has been pushed into a glass jar. Enoki mushrooms need a temperature between 72-77F in the beginning. This is about 12-30 days. Once the mycelium has permeated the entire medium, the temperature is lowered to 50-55 F, and CO2 concentration is lowered by 80-90%. 

Enoki mushrooms can be harvested a month after the mushrooms first started to develop. 

Enoki mushrooms.

Shiitake Mushrooms

Shiitake mushrooms, scientifically called Lentinula edodes, are an edible species of mushrooms native to East Asia. The first records of these mushrooms were found in 1209 during the Song dynasty in China.

These grow in decaying trees, especially maple, oak, chestnut, mulberry, and ironwood. Today, these mushrooms are grown commercially all over the world and are 25% of the mushrooms used worldwide.

The mushrooms are cultivated in blocks of Oakwood and require a temperature of about 59-68 F. Unlike enoki mushrooms, shiitake don’t need extra CO2. They need about 4-8 weeks for spawning, after which they are immersed in water for pinning. After that, the mushrooms grow in natural conditions. 

Shiitake mushrooms have a white spore print.

Shiitake Mushrooms.  

All You Need to Know About the Different Types of Mushrooms

Name of Mushroom

Nutritional Content

(100g)

Medium Needed 

Time Before Harvest

Ideal Temperature Conditions

Spore Print

Size

Months 

They 

Can Be 

Harvested In

Button

22 calories 

0.3 g fat

5 mg sodium

318 mg potassium

3.3 g carbohydrate

1 g dietary

fiber

3.1 g protein

50% horse,

or other

manure

50%

vermiculite

5-6 weeks

70 F

21 C

Brown

2-7 cm

All year 

Portobello

22 calories

2.11 g protein

0.35 g fat

3.87 g carbohydrate

1.3 dietary

fiber

3 mg calcium

9 mg sodium

0.31 mg iron

Ground Corn Cob

Gypsum

Straw

3-4 weeks

65-70 F

18-21 C

Brown

10–15 cm

 4–6 inches

December

to 

March

Oyster

33 calories

3.31 g protein

0.41 g fat

6.09 g carbohydrate

2.3 g dietary fiber

3mg calcium

18 mg

sodium

Straw

3-4 weeks

20-30 C 

5-10 cm long straw

White to lilac gray

2–30 cm

All year 

Shiitake

34 calories

2.24 g protein

0.49 g fat

6.79 g carbohydrate

2.5 g dietary fiber

2 mg calcium

9 mg sodium

Aged blocks

of Oakwood

6 months

59-68 F

White

3 to 6 inches

All months except 

winter

Top Mushroom Picks 

Product
Visual
Where to Buy
Roland Foods Whole Medium and Large Button Mushrooms
Mushroom Portobello Whole Organic
Mushroom House Dried Oyster Mushrooms
ONETANGI Shiitake Mushroom Slices 227g


1. Roland Foods Whole Medium and Large Button Mushrooms


Best Large and Medium Button mushrooms. 

We all know that button mushrooms are one of the top varieties of mushrooms consumed all over the world. Therefore, there can be many qualities in its production too. If you are looking for the best flavor and taste for button mushrooms, these are going to be a perfect choice. This is because they have an organic earthy flavor along with a juicy texture. They are sweet and considered safe for consumption. 

Besides, these mushrooms are canned which means they won't expire soon. You can use them to make different types of soups, sauces, or even cut them to be used in pizzas. Being an Amazon’s Choice product, they are one of the best mushrooms you can get for this price. 

2. Mushroom Portobello Whole Organic


Best Portobello Mushrooms. 

Not everyone is a big fan of the Portobello mushrooms as they cannot be used in a lot of dishes and they don't have an appealing texture as well. However, they certainly taste good and contain essential nutrients that provide various health benefits to the human body. If you are looking for the best Portobello mushrooms, these ones should be just perfect. They are organic, and you can get them very cheap via Amazon.com. 

Users were highly satisfied with these mushrooms but because they are not canned mushrooms, they don't have a longer shelf life. We recommend that you order them as needed and don't get them in large quantities too. They can be an excellent substitute for meat in your dishes. 

3. Mushroom House Dried Oyster Mushrooms


Oyster Mushrooms. 

Many people grow oyster mushrooms in their backyard. While this may seem like a great idea, it is a very long process to get the final product. Oyster mushrooms are used when they are dried out which is why just growing them in your backyard would not be enough. You will have to dry them out with a specific process. 

Instead, if you get these dried oyster mushrooms from amazon.com, you won't have to undergo the whole process and you will be getting a product that is verified to be of good quality. Almost all buyers of these oyster mushrooms expressed their satisfaction and wanted them again. Eat them raw or use them in a mushroom soup: They taste exceptional both ways. We also suggest that you try out these mushrooms with seafood. 

4. ONETANGI Shiitake Mushroom Slices 227g


Shitake Mushroom Slices

Shiitake mushrooms are yet again one of the most popular forms of mushrooms consumed all over the United States. While they do come out dried, they can be rehydrated quickly when they have to be used in the foods. This way, they stay safe for consumption as well. These mushroom slices are authentic and grown in organic ways which is why they are among our recommendations. 

Those who have quality concerns would be pleased to know that these mushrooms are certified to have no sulfur content nor any artificial additives. The company has processed them in a certificated factory where there is a strong control on water standards. Besides, the moisture content in these mushrooms is less than 13% which is just perfect for a great taste. 

Conclusion

Mushrooms are surely a delicacy that many love. They make up a great topping on pizza and other Italian dishes. Most of us also eat mushrooms with continental food. However, keep in mind that beyond a certain level, mushrooms should not be consumed as they can be hazardous for the human body. Get the above-mentioned mushroom products as they are safe.